During the late 1850s and early 1860s Church was at the height of his powers, painting large-scale exhibition pieces, such as Twilight in the Wilderness (1860; Cleveland, OH, Mus. A.), The Icebergs (1861; Dallas, TX, Mus. A.), Cotopaxi (1862; Detroit, MI, Inst. A.) and Aurora Borealis (1865; Washington, DC, N. Mus. of Amer. A.). He continued to paint major works in the years immediately after the Civil War but with an increasing emphasis on visionary atmospheric effects reminiscent of J. M. W. Turner, as in Rainy Season in the Tropics (1866; San Francisco, CA, de Young Mem. Mus.), Niagara Falls, from the American Side (1867; Edinburgh, N.G.) and the Vale of St Thomas, Jamaica (1867; Hartford, CT, Wadsworth Atheneum).